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Citing Guide for Business Majors (APA 6th ed.): In-Text Citing

A citing guide for business majors that's based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.)

APA Examples

Quotation and paraphrase examples adapted from the APA Style Aid Tutorial.

Examples of In-Text Citing

You can integrate APA in-text citations into your paper by using Signal Phrases.  The link below is a helpful presentation on Signal Phrases and how to use them.

  • Signal phrases help you integrate cited sources into your paper or put cited material into context for your reader. 
  • Verbs in signal phrases can be used to indicate the original source's attitude or position.  Example:  Smith (2012) claimed...   OR  Jones (2015) asserted...
  • Use the past tense of verbs in APA style signal phrases.  Examples:
acknowledged found
agreed illustrated
argued noted
asserted observed
claimed pointed out
confirmed reported
declared said
disputed stated
estimated suggested

What Is a Direct Quote?

A direct quote is a word-for-word copy of source material. The quote is enclosed in quotation marks. Include the author's last name and date of publication as well as page numbers if available. If your quote is 40 words or longer, use a block quote.


Author Before Quotation

John Fontana and Elizabeth Montalbano (2008) point out, “the market for these low-cost machines is being driven by inexpensive bandwidth; the growth of services and cloud computing; and cloud-based processing, storage, management and associated IT services”(p. 12).

Author After Quotation

"The market for these low-cost machines is being driven by inexpensive bandwidth; the growth of services and cloud computing; and cloud-based processing, storage, management, and associated IT services” (Fontana & Montalbano, 2008, p. 12).

What Is an Indirect Quote?  (source cited in another source)

When possible, cite information directly from the original source.   If you must cite a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. Include the secondary source in parentheses and in your reference list.


Example: 

Jackson stated that... (as cited in Johns, 2001, p. 14).

Note: In this example, (Johns, 2001) should appear in your reference list.

What Is a Paraphrase?

A paraphrase is a way to represent an idea from a source in your own words. It is typically as long as the original quotation. Paraphrasing is used most often to explain technical jargon or difficult-to-understand information in terms the reader can easily understand.

For paraphrasing, the APA requires you to include the author's last name and year of publication.  Page numbers are encouraged but optional.


Author At Beginning, No Page Number

John Fontana and Elizabeth Montalbano (2008) note that low priced Netbooks are gaining share because of the relatively cheap Internet access capable of downloading large files; the wealth of Internet based applications; and ability for files to be created, produced, stored, and administered on Internet hosted sites.


Author At End, No Page Number

Low priced Netbooks are gaining market share because of relatively cheap Internet access capable of downloading large files; the wealth of Internet based applications; and ability for files to be created, produced, stored, and administered on Internet hosted sites (Fontana & Montalbano, 2008).

Need additional help with writing or citing?  Please visit Peer Tutoring at the Writers' Studio. 

Writers' Studio

Peer Tutoring
Jordan Hall, Room 304
(317) 940-9804 (Studio Desk)
Emailwriters@butler.edu

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