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Citing Guide for Business Majors (APA 6th ed.): Citing/Writing Helpers

A citing guide for business majors that's based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.)

Butler University Writers' Studio

Citing/Writing Tools

Please be aware that Citation Management Tools are not perfect. If you use citation tools to create a reference list and in-text citations, ALWAYS check the output against the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Click on the badges or links found under each tab for additional information.

These tutorials will show you how to use the Microsoft Word References tool to cite selected business sources. 

Remember:  It is your responsibility to make sure you are using the citing style correctly.

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How Do I...

A Digital object identifier, also known as a DOI, is an alphanumeric string assigned to an article by a publisher to provide a persistent link for online access.

  • If an article has a DOI, you will usually find it on the first page of the article.  If you find an article in a database, you may see the DOI listed with the citation for the article. Many EBSCO databases, such as Business Source Complete, will provide the DOI when available, especially for articles from academic journals.
  • According to APA style, if you have a DOI for an article, you should include it at the end of your citation. Example:  doi:10.1080/0267257X.2015.1078397
  • If no DOI is available, provide information on where you retrieved the material.  Example:  Retrieved from Business Source Complete database

 

 

Not all dates will look the same.

The format for the date in an APA citation depends on the source type.  Usually you will include just the year, but some sources are cited with the month and year, and some also include the day.  See the APA style manual or the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) for some examples of dates.


I've double (and triple) checked my source...and I still can't find any date information. What do I do?

Sometimes a source may not have a date. In that case, you should use "n.d." (short for "No date") in place of the date.  Example:  Smith (n.d.)

Note: For further guidance on citing tables and figures please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), pp. 130-167.

Your Own Tables or Figures

Tables and figures are numbered consecutively in your paper; Figure 1, Figure 2 etc. Consult the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) pp.130 - 167 for more detailed information about formatting tables and figures.

Material Type

In-text Citation

Table

Tables are numbered consecutively, using Arabic numerals, in your paper. When referring to the table in your text refer to it by number e.g. "as shown in Table 6". The Table itself has a table number and a descriptive title, in italics, beginning on the line below.

Table #
A brief but clear explanatory title.

Figure

Figures are numbered consecutively, using Arabic numerals, in your assignment. When referring to the figure in your text refer to it by number e.g. "as shown in Figure 3". The figure itself has a figure number in italics and a descriptive caption following - beginning on the same line.

Figure#. Descriptive caption for figure.

 

Tables & Figures from Another Source

If you use a table of figure (or some data in a table or figure) from another source, then you must acknowledge your source in a note below the table or figure. Add a note below the reproduced table (or figure) as described in the in-text citation examples:

Material Type

In-text Citation

Reference Entry

Table, figure, or data from another print source

For material reprinted from a journal article:

Note. From "Best management practices by age" by D. Adams and B. Matthies, 2010,Journal of Management, 14(3), p.62.

For material reprinted from a book:

Note. From Management 101 p.11, by M. Adams, 2009, Paris: Cafe College Press.


Adams, D., & Matthies, B. (2010). Best management practices by age. Journal of Management, 14(3), 60-75. 


 

Adams, M. (2009). Management 101. Paris: Cafe College Press.

Table, figure, or data from another web source

Note. From International Merchandise Imports, United States, June 2009, United States Census Bureau.

United States Census Bureau. (2009). International Merchandise Imports, United States, June 2009, Retrieved October 18, 2010 from http://www.census.gov/econ/census07/www/international_imp.html

Consult the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) pp.130 - 167 for more detailed information about tables and figures.

Images from Another Source

Material Type

Caption Below Image

Image from web

Figure 1. Vangough’s Starry Night (1889). Note: From Internet Museum. Copyright 2010 by Jacob Stone. Reprinted with permission.

Image with personal or corporate author

Butler University Library. (2010). Library logo. Copyright 2005. Reprinted with permission.

Consult the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) pp.130 - 167 for more detailed information about images.

You should always give credit to your sources -- even in a PowerPoint presentation!  Audiences may ask you about the information you present on a specific slide.  Be prepared to match that information to a citation on your References slide. 


APA Style does not offer specific advice on how to cite within PowerPoint presentations.  Before using the suggestions below, check with your professor on specific citing requirements for your course assignments.

Suggestion 1: Include a complete list of References as the last slide of your presentation.

Suggestion 2:   Include "Source lines" on individual slides and a complete References list at the end of the presentation.

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