The CRAAP Test
Evaluate Sources Based on the Following Criteria:
Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose/Point of View
- How recent is the information?
- How recently has the website been updated?
- Is it current enough for your topic?
- Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
- Who is the intended audience?
- Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
- Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
- Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?
- Who is the creator or author?
- What are the credentials of the author/creator?
- Who is the publisher or sponsor?
- Are they reputable?
- What is the publisher's interest (if any) in this information?
- Is there contact information, such as a publisher or e-mail address?
- Is the information reliable?
- Is there supporting evidence for the information?
- Does the information presented include a bibiliography?
- Is the information peer-reviewed?
- Can you find other sources to validate the information?
- Is the information presented free from spelling, grammatical, and punctuation errors?
- Purpose/Point of View
- Is this fact or opinion?
- Is it biased?
- Is the creator/author trying to sell you something? Are there advertisements on the website?
- Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source?
examples: .com (commercial), .edu (educational), .gov (U.S. government),
.org (nonprofit organization), or .net (network)
(adapted from LOEX 2008 wiki)