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AM 298-40: Violin Studio Class

Basic resources for JCA's School of Music Violin Students.

What are LC Class Numbers and Subjects?

Items in the catalog are assigned Subject Headings in the catalog.  Subject Headings are meant to capture the most essential themes and content of the material (books, recordings, eResources, etc.).  When you search by subjects, you are able to find a smaller collection of items that share the same essential subject matter.  In catalog records, subjects are hyperlinked so that you can click on related subjects to browse related groups of items. You can also combine subjects in searches to get narrower results.


At Butler University, all of the libraries use the Library of Congress (LC) Classification System.  For those accustomed to the Dewey Decimal System, the LC System may look strange because it combines letters and numbers. Every LC call number begins with a letter or letters which designate the general subject of the material and knowing helpful classification numbers will help you browse the catalog and the stacks for related material.


A chart with a sample library of congress call number and explanations of how to interpret each part if you are browsing books in the stacks. Call numbers in the Library of Congress system are organized from general classification to more specific identifying information in each part. The sample call number is "PS3527 .E917 G7 1925 V.3." The first part, "PS3527," is the classification number. You read the letters in alphabetical order, so A comes before B, and P comes before PA, comes before PB.  PS would come between PR and PT.  The number is read in ascending numerical order.  One comes before two, which comes before three.  In this example, PS3527 would come between PS3526 and PS3528. The second part of the call number is the Cutter number.  These have a decimal point at the beginning, followed by an initial letter then a number.  Sometimes a call number can have two Cutter numbers, as our example does, ".E917" and "G7."  In both cases you would interpret the number as decimal numbers, so ".E917" would come between ".E91" and ".E92" and "G7" would come between "G69" and "G71." The third part of the call number is the publication date.  This is the year the book was published.  Editions of the same book, published in different years, are arranged in chronological order.  In our example, the book was published in 1925.  The last part of the call number is the enumeration. If a book has multiple volumes, parts, or copies, those are arranged in numerical order.  In our example, this is volume three, "V.3" which would be shelved between volumes 2 and 4.

Useful LC Classes and Subject Headings

The Butler Libraries use the Library of Congress (LC) classification scheme for its materials.  This is an alpha-numeric system.  Each call number begins with a letter or letters followed by a number designating a particular topic.  In music, all books and scores are classed with the letters "M," "ML," or "MT."

M = Scores

ML = Books about music (i.e., music literature or history)

MT= Materials about music theory or pedagogy (i.e., teaching materials)

Below is a simplified overview of the LC classes relevant to the study of the violin:



ML128 .V4                                           Bibliography

ML102 .V4                                           Dictionaries, encyclopedias

ML800+                                                History and criticism

ML802+                                                        Construction

MT260+                                                Instruction and study

MT760+                                                        for children

M40-M44                                            Solo violin

        M40                                                       Miscellaneous collections

        M41                                                       Original compositions, collections

        M42                                                       Original compositions, separate works

        M43                                                       Arrangements, collections

        M44                                                       Arrangements, separate works

M217-M223                                        Violin and piano music

        M217                                                     Miscellaneous collections

        M218                                                     Original compositions, general collections

        M219                                                     Sonatas

        M220                                                     Suites and kindred cyclical works

        M221                                                     Pieces

        M222                                                     Arrangements, collections

        M223                                                     Arrangements, separate works

M1013                                                  Violin and orchestra music (solos with piano reduction)

M1112                                                  Violin and string orchestra music (full and mini scores)

M1112.5                                                       Cadenzas. By composer of concerto, A-Z

M1113                                                  Violin and string orchestra (piano reductions)

The Butler Libraries use the Library of Congress (LC) classification scheme for its materials.  This is an alpha-numeric system.  Each call number begins with a letter or letters followed by a number designating a particular topic.  In music, all books and scores are classed with the letters "M," "ML," or "MT."

M = Scores

ML = Books about music (i.e., music literature or history)

MT= Materials about music theory or pedagogy (i.e., teaching materials)


ML128 .V36                                         Bibliography

ML900+                                                History and criticism

ML901                                                           Construction

MT280+                                                Instruction and study

MT760+                                                        for Children

M45-M49                                            Solo viola

M224-M228                                        Solo viola with keyboard

M1014                                                  Solo viola with orchestra (full & mini scores)

M1015                                                  Solo viola with orchestra (piano reductions)

M1114                                                     Solo viola with string orchestra (full & mini scores)

M1115                                                  Solo viola with string orchestra (piano reductions)



ML128 .V5                                           Bibliography

ML910+                                                History and criticism

ML911                                                           Construction

MT300+                                                Instruction and study

MT785+                                                        for Children

M50-M54                                            Solo cello

M229+                                                  Cello with piano

M1016                                                  Solo viola with orchestra (full & mini scores)

M1016.5                                                       Cadenzas

M1017                                                  Solo cello with orchestra (piano reductions)

M1116                                                  Solo cello with string orchestra (full & mni scores)

M1116.5                                                       Cadenzas

M1117                                                  Solo cello with string orchestra (piano reductions)



Ml128 .D6                                            Bibliography

ML920+                                                History and criticism

ML921                                                           Construction

MT320+                                                Instruction and study

MT801 .D65                                                for children

M237                                                     Piano and double bass, collections

M238                                                     Piano and double bass, separate works

M55-M58                                            Solo Double Bass

        M55                                                       Miscellaneous collections

        M56                                                       Original compositions, collections

        M57                                                       Original compositions, separate works

        M58                                                       Arrangements

M1018                                                  Double bass and orchestra

M1118                                                  Double bass and string orchestra



M349+                                                  String trios

M450+                                                  String quartets (scores)

        M452                                                     Two violins, viola, violoncello (includes separate works)

        MT 64 .S7                                             Compositions (Instruction and study)

        ML1160                                                History and criticism

M550+                                                  String quintets

M650+                                                  String sextets

Concertos (Violin) Scores

Concertos (Violin) Solo with piano

Sonatas (Violin and piano)

String quartets

-- Parts

-- Scores

-- Scores and parts

String trios

Violin and

harpsichord music

organ music

piano music

piano music, Arranged

viola music

viola music, Arranged

violoncello music

violoncello music, Arranged

violoncello with chamber orchestra

violoncello with instrumental ensemble

violoncello with orchestra

violoncello with string orchestra

Violin duets

Violin ensembles

Violin labels

Violin makers

Violin music


-- Instruction and study

-- Methods

-- Methods (Jazz)

-- Orchestra studies

-- Studies and exercises

-- Studies and exercises (Jazz)

Violin with

chamber orchestra

chamber orchestra, Arranged

instrumental ensemble


orchestra, Arranged

percussion ensemble

string ensemble

string orchestra

wind ensemble


Don't forget to think about related terms in foreign languages (especially French, German, and Italian)

Fiol (Swedish)

Fiolin (Norwegian)

Geige (German)

Housle (Czech)

Keman (Turkish)

Vioară (Romanian)

Violin (English and Danish)

ViolÍn (Spanish)

Violine (German)

Violina (Croatian)

Violino (Italian and Protuguese)

Violon (French)

Viool (Dutch)

Viulu (Finnish)

Skripka (Russian)

Skrzypce (Polish)


Email Butler University Libraries
Irwin Library: 317-940-9227
Science Library: 317-940-9937

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