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COPHS Plagiarism & Citation Guide: Home

For students in the PA, Pharmacy, or other health-sciences field, this guide is an introduction to COPHS standards and best practices.

COPHS Citation Guide

Useful Resources & Links

General Guidelines

References & General Rules:

  • Each reference should be cited in consecutive numerical order by means of superscript Arabic numerals in the order that they are used in the text. 
  • Use caution when referencing the internet. Many web sites are not appropriate/credible sources. Use only the highest quality sites.
  • When listing author names, use the author’s surname followed by initials, without periods.
  • Be as specific as possible
    • Do not give a generic reference to Pubmed, Iowa, EBSCO, Science Direct, etc. Always provide the citation for the specific journal article.
    • When possible, reference a specific monograph within an on-line database (as opposed to the entire database), or a specific chapter within a book (as opposed to the entire book).

In-Text Citation

  • In general, references should be listed as superscripts at the end of sentences or phrases. 
  • Citations should be placed outside periods or commas, but inside colons or semicolons.
  • Do not place spaces between punctuation and citations or between the citations themselves.

Capitalization Rules:

  • Journal articles, chapter titles in books, title of specific items in websites, video titles, etc.: Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in a title and subtitle. Exceptions: Proper nouns, abbreviations that are ordinarily capitalized (such as DNA), and (genus) names of organisms may also be capitalized in the title/subtitle.
  • All the main words of a Journal Name or Book Title are capitalized and italicized

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