You can integrate APA in-text citations into your paper by using Signal Phrases. The link below is a helpful presentation on Signal Phrases and how to use them for in-text citing.
What Is a Direct Quote?
A direct quote is a word-for-word copy of source material. The quote is enclosed in quotation marks. Include the author's last name and date of publication as well as page numbers if available. If your quote is 40 words or longer, use a block quote. Note: If no page numbers are available (ex: website), use a paragraph number instead. Count the paragraphs manually if they are not numbered. Example: (Smith, 2019, para. 4).
Example of In-Text Citing with Author Before Quotation
John Fontana and Elizabeth Montalbano (2008) pointed out, “the market for these low-cost machines is being driven by inexpensive bandwidth; the growth of services and cloud computing; and cloud-based processing, storage, management and associated IT services” (p. 12).
Example of In-Text Citing with Author After Quotation
"The market for these low-cost machines is being driven by inexpensive bandwidth; the growth of services and cloud computing; and cloud-based processing, storage, management, and associated IT services” (Fontana & Montalbano, 2008, p. 12).
What Is an Indirect Quote? (source cited in another source--also called a secondary source)
When possible, cite information directly from the original source. If you must cite a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. Include the secondary source in parentheses and in your reference list.
Jackson stated that... (as cited in Johns, 2001, p. 14).
Note: In this example, (Johns, 2001) should appear in your reference list.
What Is a Paraphrase?
A paraphrase is a way to represent an idea from a source in your own words. It is typically as long as the original quotation. Paraphrasing is used most often to explain technical jargon or difficult-to-understand information in terms the reader can easily understand.
For paraphrasing, the APA requires you to include the author's last name and year of publication. Page numbers are encouraged but optional.
Example with Author At Beginning, No Page Number
John Fontana and Elizabeth Montalbano (2008) noted that low priced Netbooks are gaining share because of the relatively cheap Internet access capable of downloading large files; the wealth of Internet based applications; and ability for files to be created, produced, stored, and administered on Internet hosted sites.
Example with Author At End, No Page Number
Low priced Netbooks are gaining market share because of relatively cheap Internet access capable of downloading large files; the wealth of Internet based applications; and ability for files to be created, produced, stored, and administered on Internet hosted sites (Fontana & Montalbano, 2008).
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