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GHS210: Digital Media Project: Citing in your Project

How to Cite Your ...

Our primary source databases include all types of content - images, diaries, posters, buttons, audio, etc. It can be a little tricky to know how to cite all these different materials. Here's our best advice to you:

Arrow pointing at text to draw attention to itDoes the database provide a citation generator? If so, select the citation style you are using for your text sources and use the citation provided.


If no citation suggestion is provided, you will have to create your own citation. Remember - the idea is to provide proper credit for the entity that is providing this for you! It should include these five pieces:

One  Title

If no title is provided, you can create a description of the material.

Two   Initial Source/Author

You may find that there are multiple people or entities that need to be recognized - for example, you may want to list an artist's name and the name of the museum that owns and makes their work available online.

Three  License/Permissions/Copyright

Many of these materials are available via the public domain. If you can spot the words public domain anywhere on the page, that is what you would put into this part of the citation.

You may encounter materials that say they are under copyright, or have "all rights reserved." In these situations, you may still use the items under the Fair Use part of copyright law. You will need to make it clear in your citation that the author retains their rights.

4  Database Retrieved From

Give credit to the database that holds the materials.

5  "Used under Fair Use"

Most of the materials held in these databases are still under copyright. You are putting them in your project, in limited quantities, for educational purposes. So add the phrase "used under fair use" at the end of your citation to make this clear to your audience.


See Examples of Primary Source Citations


If you embed the image/media and the embedded content automatically links back to its database page, you do not need to provide additional citation.

 

These guidelines apply for items with any Creative Commons or public domain license that you find via Google Images or other sources.

For these items, you are expected to adhere to Creative Commons best practices for attribution/citation by listing three elements:

  • Title/name of work 
  • Author/creator
  • Source(s)
  • License

For example: Indianapolis Museum of Art statue

Title: Indianapolis Museum of Art-IMA

Author: Serge Melki

Source: Indianapolis Museum of Art-IMA, Wikimedia Commons

License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 license

 

Indianapolis Museum of Art-IMA by Serge Melki is licensed under CC-BY 2.0.

 

Note the hyperlinks: 

"Indianapolis Museum of Art-IMA" is hyperlinked to the original Flikr page source.

"Serge Melki" is hyperlinked to the artist's profile.

"CC-BY 2.0" is hyperlinked to the license deed.

 

Include this attribution in the caption field or on the same page where the image/media is being inserted.


If you make modifications to the work, you will need to expand the attribution to include the changes you made.

See Examples of Best Practice Attribution


See Examples of Image Citations


If the image/media comes from your technology tool, or a free search embedded in your technology tool, then no additional citation is necessary. If you embed the image/media, and the embedded content automatically links back to its host site (such as a YouTube video), you do not need to provide additional citation.

For your text information, you are expected to provide:

  • In-text citation
  • Full reference

Digital & Media Citation Best Practices

Header image citation placed at the bottom of the page

Citation Placement

Try your best to place the citation with the work (for example, by putting the image citation in the caption field).

If that isn't possible or aesthetically pleasing, put the citation at the bottom of the same page and use labels (like header image, or image credits clockwise from top left) to help the audience match the citation to the right work. 


Image credit: Screenshot of Google Sites by astarkel. Used under Fair Use.

Person working on laptop

Hyperlink Efficiencies

Use the digital format to your advantage - even within your citations!

  • If you don't like the look of full parenthetical citations in your text, insert a number in the parentheses and then number your source reference list - it's much cleaner look.
  • Give people direct access to your sources! Try to avoid listing out urls and hyperlink instead.
  • If your references are listed on a different page, hyperlink your parenthetical or in-text note to your full reference entry.

Image credit: [technology] by kaboompics. Used under CC0

A piece of a puzzle sticking out from the rest of the assembled puzzle.

For this project, you may be creating a couple of different things - a website, a timeline, a storymap, etc. Do your best to make sure that your citations are contained within each individual piece.

If you used source information in your timeline, cite it within the timeline. If you create a storymap, put the sources into the storymap. Make sure it's not easy for the work to be separated from the citation.


Image credit: [puzzle] by 422737. Used under CC0

 

Types of Creative Commons Licenses

Creative Commons Attribution License Icon

CC-BY Attribution

You can:

Share-- Copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format

Adapt-- Remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially

Under the following terms:

Attribution-- You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made


Creative commons non-commercial license icon

CC-BY Non-Commerical

You can:

Share-- Copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format

Adapt-- Remix, transform, and build upon the material

Under the following terms:

Attribution-- You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made

Non-Commercial-- You may not use the material for commercial purposes


Creative Commons ShareAlike iconCC-BY ShareAlike 

You can:

Share-- Copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format

Adapt-- Remix, transform, and build upon the material

Under the following terms:

Attribution-- You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made

ShareAlike-- If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original


Creative Commons No Derivatives iconCC-BY No Derivatives

You can:

Share-- Copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format

Under the following terms:

Attribution-- You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made

No Derivatives-- If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material


Public Domain icon Zero restrictions icon Public Domain/ No restrictions

This icon waives all copyright or database rights, and all interests that may exist in the work worldwide. 

You can:

Share-- Copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format

Adapt-- Remix, transform, and build upon the material

Under the following terms:

No terms or requirements for these works

 

CONTACT

Email Butler University Libraries
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Science Library: 317-940-9937
CAT: 317-940-8575

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