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Resources for Applied Art, Art History, and Visual Culture students at Butler University

Some Things to Consider When Evaluating Information Sources:

The CRAAP Test

Evaluate Sources Based on the Following Criteria:
Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose/Point of View

  • Currency
    • How recent is the information?
    • How recently has the website been updated?
    • Is it current enough for your topic?
  • Relevance
    • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
    • Who is the intended audience?
    • Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
    • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
    • Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?
    • Who is the creator or author?
    • What are the credentials of the author/creator?
    • Who is the publisher or sponsor?
    • Are they reputable?
    • What is the publisher's interest (if any) in this information?
    • Is there contact information, such as a publisher or e-mail address?


    • Is the information reliable?
    • Is there supporting evidence for the information?
    • Does the information presented include a bibiliography?
    • Is the information peer-reviewed?
    • Can you find other sources to validate the information?
    • Is the information presented free from spelling, grammatical, and punctuation errors?
  •  Purpose/Point of View
    • Is this fact or opinion?
    • Is it biased?
    • Is the creator/author trying to sell you something? Are there advertisements on the website?
    • Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source?

                examples: .com (commercial), .edu (educational), .gov (U.S. government),
                   .org (nonprofit organization), or .net (network)

(adapted from LOEX 2008 wiki)

For more information:


Email Butler University Libraries
Irwin Library: 317-940-9227
Science Library: 317-940-9937
CAT: 317-940-8575

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