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Citing Guide for Business Majors (APA 7th ed.): Citing/Writing Helpers

Butler University Writers' Studio

Citing/Writing Helpers

Please be aware that Citation Management Tools or Citation Makers (ex:  EasyBib) are not perfect. If you use citation tools to create a reference list and in-text citations, ALWAYS check the output against the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

How Do I...

You should always give credit to your sources -- even in a PowerPoint presentation!  Audiences may ask you about the information you present on a specific slide.  Be prepared to match that information to a citation on your References slide. 

APA Style does not offer specific advice on how to cite within PowerPoint presentations.  Before using the suggestions below, check with your professor on specific citing requirements for your course assignments.

Suggestion 1: Include a complete list of References as the last slide of your presentation.

Suggestion 2:   Include "Source lines" on individual slides and a complete References list at the end of the presentation.

A Digital object identifier, also known as a DOI, is an alphanumeric string assigned to an article by a publisher to provide a persistent link for online access.

  • If an article has a DOI, you will usually find it on the first page of the article.  If you find an article in a database, you may see the DOI listed with the citation for the article. Many EBSCO databases, such as Business Source Complete, will provide the DOI when available, especially for articles from academic journals.
  • According to APA style, if you have a DOI for an article, you should include it at the end of your citation. Example:
  • If no DOI is available, provide information on where you retrieved the material.  Example:  Include the name of a database or the URL for a website.



Some of the citing examples provided in the links below include:

  • Sources with more than one author
  • Sources with no author 
  • Sources that are organizations (ex:  companies, government agencies)  
  • Two or more works by the same author in the same year

Not all dates will look the same.

  • The format for the date in an APA citation depends on the source type.  Usually you will include just the year, but some sources (such as newspaper or magazine articles) are cited with the month and year, and some also include the day. 
  • For websites:  Use the date of last publication or last update.  Do not use the copyright date from a webpage footer. 

No dates:  "I can't find any date information. What do I do?"

Sometimes a source may not have a date, and that is often true for information found on a website.  In those cases, you should use "n.d." (short for "No date") in place of the date.  Example:  Smith (n.d.)

An adapted and abbreviated style for in-text citing of sources for a table or chart is shown in the image below.  Include the author's last name (or name of organization) and the year.  If the graphic includes information from multiple sources, include an in-text citation for each in alphabetical order, separated by a semi-colon.  The References page at the end of your paper should include the full-text citation for the sources cited under the graphic.




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