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*Reusable LibGuides Boxes: The CRAP/CRAAP/TRAAP Test

The CRAP Test

The CRAP Test

Currency, Reliability, Authority, Purpose and Point of View

Man carrying a sign that says "Judgement Day May 21, 2011"

When was the information published or posted?

Do you need historical or current information?

Has this information been revised or changed since it was first released?


BOTTOM LINE: Does this offer appropriately current or historical information?

Image: Bummer by Nick Harris1Used under CC BY-ND

The word reliable. The letters that make up the word are starting to fall off.What kind of information is included in this resource?

Is the content of the resource primarily opinion?

Is it balanced?

Does the creator provide references or sources for data or quotations?


BOTTOM LINE:  Is this quality, trustworthy information?

Image: "Reliable" by Eva the Weaver. Used underCC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Man standing with several cameras hanging around his neck. Cannot see man's face.

Who is the author?  Who is the publisher?

  • What expertise do they have with this subject?
  • What is their educational background?
  • Where are they from? Where are they living now?
  • What political party do they belong to?
  • What organizations or causes do they support?
  • Are there any other biases you can ascertain?

BOTTOM LINE: Can you trust this author and publisher to know what they're talking about?

Image: [Man with Cameras] by i k o. Used under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

World War Two poster that says "Millions of troops are on the move; is your trip necessary?"

What is the purpose of this information source?

  • To entertain? Inform? Educate? Pursuade? Sell? 
  • Are advertisements included? Photographs?

Is the information fact, opinion, or propoganda?

Do the authors/publishers make their intentions clear?

  • Is there bias - political, cultural, religious, ideological, personal, etc?

BOTTOM LINE: Is this source objective and impartial, or is it influenced by bias or hidden agendas?

Image: "Is your trip necessary?" by Richard Masoner / Cyclelicious.Used under CC BY-SA 2.0.

The CRAAP Test

The CRAAP Test

Currency, Relevancy, Authority, Accuracy, Purpose

The CRAAP test lists criteria that can help you evaluate the quality and appropriateness of the information sources you encounter. 

Man carrying a sign that says "Judgement Day May 21, 2011"

When was the information published or posted?

Do you need historical or current information?

Has this information been revised or changed since it was first released?


BOTTOM LINE: Does this offer appropriately current or historical information?

Image: Bummer by Nick Harris1Used under CC BY-ND

Woman reading a book, looking confusedDoes the information help you accomplish the purpose of your work/paper? Does this easily relate to your topic?

Does this source meet all your information needs or assignment requirements?

Is this source at an appropriate level for your intended audience?

Have you looked at a variety of sources? Why is this source better than others?


BOTTOM LINE: Is this a source that adds value to your work? Why is it worth including?

Image: Confused by CollegeDegrees360Used under CC BY-SA 2.0

Man standing with several cameras hanging around his neck. Cannot see man's face.

Who is the author?  Who is the publisher?

  • What expertise do they have with this subject?
  • What is their educational background?
  • Where are they from? Where are they living now?
  • What political party do they belong to?
  • What organizations or causes do they support?
  • Are there any other biases you can ascertain?

BOTTOM LINE: Can you trust this author and publisher to know what they're talking about?

Image: [Man with Cameras] by i k o. Used under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Is this information correct? Reliable?

Are sources listed? Cited within the text?

Dart board with several darts in the bulleye

  • Are these sources scholarly/academic?
  • When were these sources published?
  • Do these sources come from trustworthy authors/publishers?

If the source conducted its own original research:

  • What methods were used to collect the data/information?
  • What was the sample size or population?
  • Are there any weaknesses in the way that they gather or analyzed their data?
  • Do you feel that they provided adequate support for their conclusions?

BOTTOM LINE: Can you trust that this information is true?

Image: Darts by Richard_of_EnglandUsed under CC BY 2.0

World War Two poster that says "Millions of troops are on the move; is your trip necessary?"What is the purpose of this information source?

  • To entertain? Inform? Educate? Pursuade? Sell? 
  • Are advertisements included? Photographs?

Is the information fact, opinion, or propoganda?

Do the authors/publishers make their intentions clear?

Is there bias - political, cultural, religious, ideological, personal, etc?


BOTTOM LINE: Is this source objective and impartial, or is it influenced by bias or hidden agendas?

Image: "Is your trip necessary?" by Richard Masoner / Cyclelicious.Used under CC BY-SA 2.0.

Are you falling into a TRAAP?

 

Infographic Summary of the TRAAP test

 

Acknowledgement

The TRAAP Test is modified from The CRAAP Test, created by Sarah Blakeslee and the librarians at California State University's Meriam Library in 2004.

Learn more: The CRAPpy Song

Additional Resources

Learn more: Checking for CRAAP

The TRAAP test (text based)

The TRAAP Test is a list of questions to help you evaluate the information you find. Different criteria will be more or less important depending on your situation or need.

Evaluation Criteria

Timeliness

  • When was the information published?
  • Does the age of the information affect the accuracy?
  • Is there a more recent version that supports or refutes the original?
  • Are the links functional?

Relevance

  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is it pitched at a scholarly audience?
  • Have you looked at a variety of similar sources before selecting this one?
  • Would you be comfortable citing this source?

Authority

  • Where did the information come from?
  • Is the author / publisher / sponsor identified?
  • Can their credentials be verified?
  • Has the source been cited in other research?
  • Do you trust the source?

Accuracy

  • Can the information be verified other in other reliable sourced?
  • Does the research contain sufficient evidence to back it up?
  • Has it been through a peer-review process?
  • Are there spelling or grammatical errors?

Purpose 

  • Why was this information created?
  • Does it seek to inform, provide facts, to sell, or to persuade you of something?
  • Is there evidence of political, religious, institutional, or personal biases?
  • Is the information objective and impartial?

The TRAAP test is shared from The Australian National University LibGuide on Evaluating Sources.

It has been shared here under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License.

creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0

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